Monthly Archives: December 2013

ชมภาพถ่ายการฉลองปีใหม่ทั่วโลก World welcomes 2014: In pictures

Countries around the world have begun ushering in 2014, with fireworks displays erupting first in cities in the Asia-Pacific region.

Fireworks are let off from the Auckland Sky Tower to celebrate the new year
Auckland in New Zealand was the first major city to see in 2014 with a firework display.
Fireworks explode over the Harbour Bridge and the Opera House during New Year's Eve celebrations in Sydney
Australia’s biggest city Sydney put on its traditionally spectacular show over the Harbour Bridge.
Fireworks explode at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre over the Victoria Harbor (1st January 2014)
Hong Kong residents enjoyed fireworks over Victoria Harbour.
Naked men in loincloths pound steamed rice into a mochi rice cake to celebrate the New Year at the Kanda shrine in Tokyo on January 1, 2014
In Japan, traditional mochi or rice cakes are pounded as part of New Year celebrations.
Fireworks explode near Malaysia's landmark Petronas Twin Towers during New Year celebrations in Kuala Lumpur January 1, 2014
In Malaysia, fireworks exploded near Kuala Lumpur’s Petronas Twin Towers.
Fireworks burst over the Singapore skyline during New Year celebrations on January 1, 2014
Singapore welcomed in the new year with an eight-minute display lighting up the city’s skyline.
Fireworks explode over Juche Tower and the Taedong River in Pyongyang, North Korea.
Fireworks lit up Juche Tower and the Taedong River in the North Korean capital, Pyongyang.
A man runs as firecrackers burst around him, on the street during the New Year celebrations in Mumbai, India, 1 January 2014
Revellers in Mumbai had to dodge firecrackers as New Year celebrations got under way.
Fireworks in Dubai light up the Burj Khalifa (1 Jan 2014)
The world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa, was illuminated as Dubai aimed for a world record-breaking fireworks display.
Sky lantern launched from Red Square, Moscow
These revellers in Red Square, Moscow, launched a sky lantern to mark the new year.
Russian police officers get ready to check people arriving at the Red Square ahead of the New Year's Eve festivities, in Moscow, Russia, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2013.
However, there was tight security in Moscow after bomb blasts in Russia’s southern city of Volgograd.

Countries are ushering in 2014, with firework displays erupting first in cities in the Asia-Pacific region and then sweeping across the world.

Confetti dropped on revellers during New Year's Eve celebrations in Times Square, New York
Confetti was dropped on revellers at midnight during celebrations in Times Square, New York.
 
 
Revellers take part in new year celebrations in Coin, near the southern Spanish town of Malaga
These revellers in Coin, near Malaga in southern Spain, saw the new year in dressed as fairies and hippies.
Fireworks in Nathan Phillips Square in Toronto, Canada
Fireworks lit up Nathan Phillips Square in Toronto, Canada.
Fireworks over Copacabana Beach, Rio
Copacabana Beach was the perfect place to watch fireworks over Rio de Janeiro.
London Eye lit up by fireworks
The London Eye on the banks of the River Thames was lit up.
Fireworks over Edinburgh Castle
Fireworks illuminated Edinburgh Castle where thousands celebrated “Hogmanay”.
People's Procession of Light in Dublin
Dublin held a People’s Procession of Light, a torch-lit celebration illuminating its way through the city.
Fireworks explode near Malaysia's landmark Petronas Twin Towers during New Year celebrations in Kuala Lumpur January 1, 2014
In Malaysia, fireworks exploded near Kuala Lumpur’s Petronas Twin Towers.
Fireworks burst over the Singapore skyline during New Year celebrations on January 1, 2014
Singapore welcomed in the new year with an eight-minute display lighting up the city’s skyline.
Fireworks explode over Juche Tower and the Taedong River in Pyongyang, North Korea.
Fireworks lit up Juche Tower and the Taedong River in the North Korean capital, Pyongyang.
 
 
 
 
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Shocking video shows huge fireball reaching into sky after train carrying crude oil crashes and explodes

The train, which was carrying crude oil and was 106 cars long, crashed into another train leading to a series of huge blasts

This shocking video shows a huge fireball reaching high into the sky after an oil train crashed and exploded.

The BNSF train carrying crude oil collided with another train near Fargo North Dakota on Monday setting off a series of blasts that left at least 10 cars ablaze.

Following the accident a cloud of thick black smoke could be seen up to twenty miles away.

Residents in nearby towns are on guard in case the toxic plume is blown towards their homes.

The train, which was carrying crude oil, was 106 cars long, according to local reports.

The accident led to a series of massive explosions.

Local residents heard five powerful blasts just a mile outside of the small town of Casselton after a westbound train carrying soybeans derailed, and the eastbound BNSF train ran into it, local officials said.

There were no reports of any injuries.

Half of the oil cars have been separated from the train, but another 56 cars remain in danger, said Cecily Fong, the public information officer with the North Dakota Department of Emergency Services.

The collision destroyed both engines on the oil train. Both trains were operated by BNSF Railway Co, which is owned by Warren Buffett’s Bershire Hathaway Inc.

The incident threatens to stoke concerns about the safety of carrying increasing volumes of crude oil by rail, a trend that emerged from the unexpected burst of shale oil production out of North Dakota’s Bakken fields.

Over two-thirds of the state’s oil production is currently shipped by rail.

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New Year’s Eve 2013 Google Doodle shows 2013 disco dancing as 2014

The colourful motif is the last of Google’s impressive range of doodles this year – which have celebrated anything from Doctor Who to Thanksgiving

Disco dancing: New Year's Eve 2013 Google Doodle
Disco dancing: New Year’s Eve 2013 Google Doodle
Google

Google has marked New Year’s Eve with a doodle showing ‘2013’ disco dancing while 2014 waits patiently for its turn.

The colourful motif is the last of Google’s impressive range of doodles this year – which have celebrated anything from Doctor Who and Thanksgiving to the birthday of Raymond Loewy, who designed the Coca Cola bottle.

Other doodles this year have marked the birthdays of famous names from the past such as the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and the legendary cricketer John Wisden.

The very first Goodle Doodle appeared in 1998 and featured a reference to the Burning Man festival that Google founders Larry and Sergey were attending.

They are now a regular feature on the search engine’s homepage and illustrate a range of special events, occasions and anniversaries.

Check out all the latest News, Sport & Celeb gossip at Mirror.co.uk http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/new-years-eve-google-doodle-2974374#ixzz2p5t4nnLQ
Follow us: @DailyMirror on Twitter | DailyMirror on Facebook

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Sydney New Year 2014

Watch the Sydney New Year fireworks display in full
Sydney greets 2014 with an 11-minute extravagant display of fireworks from the iconic opera house and harbour bridge. Watch the whole display here

Exploding fireworks sprayed from Sydney‘s iconic opera house and harbour bridge at midnight Tuesday as the world began ushering in a new year.

More than one million people crammed the Sydney Harbour foreshore on a warm summer night to watch Sydney’s renowned annual pyrotechnics show, which appeared to live up to its billing as the city’s most extravagant.

The colourful display lasted for 11 minutes and fireworks launched from four sails of the Sydney Opera House for the first time in more than a decade.

http://youtu.be/hEFjdNjXzbs

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เฉลิมฉลองวันปีใหม่อันดับแรกของโลก New Zealand celebrates New Year 2014

เฉลิมฉลองวันปีใหม่อันดับแรกของโลกนะคะ
New Zealand celebrates New Year 2014
The city of Auckland was the first major world capital to let off the fireworks as the country marks the beginning of the New Year

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New year celebrations welcome 2014

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-25557023

Celebrations are taking place around the world to mark the start of 2014.

People in Auckland, New Zealand, were among the first to celebrate. In Australia, hundreds of thousands gathered for a spectacular firework display around Sydney’s Harbour Bridge.

Similar shows took place in cities across the world, with thousands lining London’s River Thames.

New York staged its traditional New Year’s Eve countdown and ball-drop over a chilly Times Square.

US Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor, a New York native, pushed the ceremonial button to drop the famous ball on a rooftop over the square.

Moscow also celebrated with a spectacular fireworks display over the Kremlin.

However, there was intense security in Red Square following recent suicide bombings in the southern Russian city of Volgograd.

Dubai – in the same time zone as Moscow – aimed for a world record with a fireworks extravaganza stretching along 30 miles (50km) of seafront.

Adjudicators from Guinness World Records were on hand to check proceedings, but it was not clear immediately whether the attempt was successful.

The world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa, was the centrepiece of the display.

New year fireworks in London
Fireworks in London featured peach-flavoured “snow” and edible banana confetti
Times Square ball drops and signals the start of the new year
In New York’s Times Square a countdown and ball drop triggered celebrations
Fireworks in Dubai light up the Burj Khalifa (1 Jan 2014)
The Burj Khalifa in downtown Dubai was lit up by fireworks to welcome 2014
Firework display over Rio de Janeiro
Couples on Copacabana Beach enjoyed Rio de Janeiro’s celebrations

East Asian cities also rang in the new year, with Beijing, Jakarta and Singapore all hosting celebrations.

In Hong Kong, tens of thousands of spectators watched the fireworks over Victoria Harbour.

The Chinese city of Wuhan had called off its display to avoid worsening a smog problem.

In Japan, Shinto priests gathered at shrines. Japanese people traditionally visit shrines and temples to pray for their families at this time.

In the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, an estimated 100,000 people sang the national anthem in the city’s Independence Square in support of further integration with Europe.

The square has been the focus of pro-European protests for more than a month after President Viktor Yanukovych ditched a key deal with the EU.

As midnight struck across western Europe, Berlin and Paris were among the capitals staging spectacular displays.

Fireworks over Berlin's Brandenburg Gate
Berlin’s Brandenburg Gate was the backdrop for a spectacular display of fireworks
A Japanese Shinto maiden (R) greets worshippers as they enter the Kanda shrine to celebrate the New Year in Tokyo on January 1, 2014
It’s not just about fireworks – Japanese people traditionally visit shrines and temples to pray for their families at New Year
Fireworks explode over Juche Tower and the Taedong River in Pyongyang
North Koreans were treated to a firework display over the Juche Tower and Taedong River in Pyongyang
In the New Zealand town of Queenstown, revellers partied ahead of the New Year
In the New Zealand town of Queenstown, revellers partied ahead of the New Year
Women in traditional costumes danced during a parade for 2013's last sundown on Bali, Indonesia
Women in traditional costumes danced during a parade for 2013’s last sundown on Bali, Indonesia
Sydney
In Sydney, a spectacular display lit up the famous Harbour Bridge as it kicked off the new year’s celebrations

In London – an hour behind – the chimes of Big Ben signalled what was billed as the world’s first “multi-sensory” firework show, with peach-flavoured “snow” and edible banana confetti showering crowds packing the banks of the River Thames.

In Scotland, where new year festivities are known as Hogmanay, crowds thronging the streets of Edinburgh were dazzled by a more traditional firework display over the ramparts of Edinburgh castle.

Meanwhile in Dublin, performers took part in a People’s Procession of Light, a torch-lit celebration illuminating its way through the city.

Cape Town in South Africa staged a free concert with lasers, fireworks and a special tribute to former President Nelson Mandela, who died on 5 December.

In Brazil, organisers of Rio de Janeiro’s celebrations estimated that more than one million revellers packed the city’s famous Copacabana beach to watch fireworks light up the bay after midnight.

New York will soon mark the new year with the traditional New Year’s Eve countdown and ball drop over Times Square.

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Christmas Eve in Bethlehem draws thousands

Midnight mass at the biblical birthplace of Jesus

The Associated Press Posted: Dec 24, 2013 3:52 PM ET Last Updated: Dec 24, 2013 7:03 PM ET

mideast-israel-palestinians

Excited tourists milled about the town’s Manger Square, stopping in restaurants and souvenir shops. (Majdi Mohammed/The Associated Press)

Thousands of Christian pilgrims from around the world packed the West Bank town of Bethlehem for Christmas Eve celebrations on Tuesday, bringing warm holiday cheer to the biblical birthplace of Jesus on a cool, clear night.

The heavy turnout, its highest in years, helped lift spirits in Bethlehem as leaders expressed hope that the coming year would finally bring the Palestinians an independent state of their own.

“The message of Christmas is a message of peace, love and brotherhood. We have to be brothers with each other,” said Latin Patriarch Fouad Twal, the top Roman Catholic cleric in the Holy Land, as he arrived in town.

Excited tourists milled about the town’s Manger Square, stopping in restaurants and souvenir shops and admiring a large, illuminated Christmas Tree. Marching bands and scout troops performed for the visitors in the streets, and on a stage next to the tree.

Will Green of New York City, along with his wife, Debbie, and their 2-year-old daughter Daphne were among the crowds of people who greeted Twal’s motorcade as he entered town from nearby Jerusalem.

Green said that being in Bethlehem for Christmas was a dream come true. “All the stories that we grew up with. It’s here. It’s part of our life. We heard them in the family, school and church. This is the birthplace,” he said.

Green slowly pushed a stroller and his wife held their daughter as they followed a crowd toward the Church of the Nativity, built on the site where Christians believe Jesus was born.

Mideast Israel Palestinians

A general view of Manger Square, outside the Church of the Nativity, in Bethlehem. (Majdi Mohammed/The Associated Press)

Palestinian dignitaries greeted Twal at the entrance of Bethlehem. His motorcade crawled through the town’s narrow streets as he stopped to shake hands and greet the throngs of visitors. It took him nearly 90 minutes to make the short trip to the Church of the Nativity, where thousands of people were gathered ahead of Midnight Mass.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and the European Union’s foreign policy chief, Catherine Ashton, were among the dignitaries expected to attend the service.

The number of visitors remained below the record levels of the late 1990s, when Israeli-Palestinian peace efforts were at their height.

Visitor numbers plunged after uprising

Following a Palestinian uprising that began in 2000, the numbers plunged. But thanks to a period of relative calm, they have been steadily climbing in recent years — and are expected to get an extra push this year thanks to the resumption of peace talks.

“Our message is a message of justice and peace,” said Palestinian Tourism Minister Rula Maayah. “We Palestinians are seeking peace and we deserve to have peace and our children deserve to live in peace.”

Maayah said the number of visitors to Bethlehem was expected to jump by about 14 percent from last year.

A spokesman said 10,000 foreign visitors had entered town by the early evening, slightly higher than last year. Israel’s Tourism Ministry, which coordinates the visits with the Palestinians, said the number could reach 25,000 during the holiday season.

Despite the Christmas cheer, Mideast politics loomed in the background. In order to enter Bethlehem, Twal’s motorcade had to cross through the hulking concrete separation barrier that Israel built during the uprising. Israel says the barrier is needed to keep attackers from entering nearby Jerusalem, but Palestinians say the structure has stifled the town and stolen their land.

Maayah said that the barrier, along with nearby Israeli settlements and Israeli control of archaeological sites in the West Bank, has made it difficult to develop the tourism sector.

In addition, few Palestinians seem to think that the current round of peace talks will bear fruit. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry relaunched the talks last summer, but there have been no signs of progress.

Bethlehem is one-third Christian

Israel carried out a series of airstrikes and other attacks Tuesday in the Gaza Strip in retaliation for the deadly shooting of an Israeli civilian who had been working along the border. The fighting, which left a 3-year-old Palestinian girl dead, was the heaviest in more than a year.

Christmas also serves as a reminder of the dwindling numbers of Christians who live in the Holy Land. Over the decades, tens of thousands of Christians have left, fleeing violence or in search of better opportunities overseas. Christians now make up a tiny percentage of the population.

Bethlehem is now only one-third Christian, with most residents Muslim. In an annual gesture, Israel permitted some 500 members of Gaza’s small Christian community to leave the Hamas-ruled territory and cross through Israel to attend the celebrations in Bethlehem.

But for one night at least, residents and visitors brushed aside their troubles to celebrate the holiday.

Nick Parker, a student from Georgia Tech University, said he was enjoying the food and making friends with local residents and fellow travelers.

“It’s special to be here where Jesus was born,” he said. “It’s a special opportunity, once in a lifetime.”

© The Associated Press, 2013

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Pope Francis holds his 1st Christmas Eve mass as pontiff

The Associated Press Posted: Dec 24, 2013 2:00 PM ET 
Last Updated: Dec 24, 2013 7:19 PM ET

vatican-pope-christmas

Pope Francis celebrates the Christmas Eve Mass in St. Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican, his first Christmas Eve Mass as pontiff. (Gregorio Borgia/Associated Press)

Pope Francis lauded Jesus’ humble beginning as a poor and vulnerable baby as he celebrated his first Christmas Eve Mass as pontiff Tuesday in St. Peter’s Basilica.

`’You are immense, and you made yourself small; you are rich, and you made yourself poor; you are all-powerful and you made yourself vulnerable,” Francis said of Jesus as he delivered his homily in the basilica, packed with faithful.

Francis has dedicated much of his nine-month-old papacy to drawing attention to the plight of the poor, of children, and other vulnerable members of society.

He noted that the first to receive news of Jesus’ birth were shepherds, who in society were considered `’among the last, the outcast.”

The bells of St. Peter’s rang as Francis, who turned 77 a week ago, walked briskly up the main aisle of the basilica for the ceremony, which began Tuesday 2 1/2 hours before midnight. Keeping with the theme of humility he has set for his new papacy, Francis carried the statue instead of an aide, and kissed a knee of the figure of the newly born Jesus.

The occasional wail of babies in the basilica contrasted at times with the sweet voices of the choir.

The Argentine-born pope has also encouraged his flock to be a joyful church, and he called Jesus’ `’the light who brightens the darkness.”

In the world’s history and our own personal history, Francis said, `’there are both bright and dark moments, lights and shadows. `’ He added `’if our heart is closed, if we are dominated by pride, deceit, self-seeking, then darkness falls within us and around us.”

Francis has applied this same vision to the heart of the Vatican’s own working, saying in past remarks there is no place for person ambition in the clerical hierarchy. Rather, he has insisted, the Catholic church must be one of service to those in need.

 

Earlier, in the Holy Land, thousands of Christian pilgrims from around the world packed the West Bank town of Bethlehem for Christmas Eve celebrations, bringing warm holiday cheer to the biblical birthplace of Jesus on a cool, clear night.

The heavy turnout, its highest in years, helped lift spirits in Bethlehem as leaders expressed hope that the coming year would finally bring the Palestinians an independent state of their own.

“The message of Christmas is a message of peace, love and brotherhood. We have to be brothers with each other,” said Latin Patriarch Fouad Twal, the top Roman Catholic cleric in the Holy Land, as he arrived in town.

At the Vatican during the homily, Francis quoted the Apostle John, saying “`whoever hates his brother is in the darkness”‘ and `”does not know the way to go, because the darkness has blinded his eyes.”‘

The basilica ceremony was the pope’s only public Mass for Christmas. On Wednesday, Christmas Day, Francis will deliver his Christmas message, meant for the world, from the basilica’s central balcony overlooking St. Peter’s Square.

As he left the basilica in a procession, Francis was preceded by 10 children carrying flowers, a pair of children each from Italy, the Philippines, Lebanon, his native Argentina and Congo.

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“คริสต์มาสอีฟ” หรือค่ำของวันที่ 24 ธันวาคม

“คริสต์มาสอีฟ” หรือค่ำของวันที่ 24 ธันวาคม

christmas-eve-2013
ในวันนี้ ชาวคริสต์ส่วนมากจะเดินทางไปร่วมพิธีนมัสการ ตามโบสถ์ ซึ่งจะทำพีธีกันในเวลาเที่ยงคืน ส่วนในประเทศเยอรมนีจะเรียกว่า “ไวฮนาคท” (Weihnacht) มีความหมายเดียวกันกับคำว่า “White Christmas” ซึ่งถือว่า เป็น “คืนอันศักดิ์สิทธิ์” ผู้ที่นับถือศาสนาคริสต์ จะมารวมตัวกันที่โบสถ์เพื่อทำกิจกรรมร่วมกัน เช่น การแสดง ร้องเพลง เกี่ยวกับการสรรเสริญพระเยซู

ในวันนี้เด็กๆ จะเอาถุงเท้าไปแขวนไว้หน้าเตาผิง เพราะเชื่อว่าจะมีซานตาคลอส ปีนลงมาตามปล่องไฟ และเอาของขวัญใส่ไว้ในถุงเท้าที่มีชื่อของแต่ละคนติดไว้ พอตอนเช้า เด็กๆ จะรีบตื่นมาเปิดถุงเท้าของตัวเองเพื่อดูว่า ซานตาได้ให้ของขวัญอะไรกับตัวเองบ้าง

ตำนานการให้ของขวัญในวันคริสต์มาส กล่าวกันว่ามาจากนักบุญนิโคลัสได้รู้จักหญิงสาวสามคน อาศัยอยู่นอกเมืองในชนบท หญิงสาวทั้งสามยากจนมากจนคิดขายตัว พอนักบุญนิโคลัสทราบข่าวจึงคิดที่จะช่วยเหลือ คืนหนึ่งก่อนวันคริสต์มาสท่านจึงเดินทางไปที่บ้านของหญิงสาวทั้งสาม และแอบหย่อนเหรียญทองสามเหรียญลงไปในรูที่มีไว้ระบายควันจากเตาไฟ ปรากฏว่าเหรียญทั้งสามไม่ได้ตกลงไปหน้าเตาไฟ แต่กลับกลิ้งเข้าไปในถุงเท้าที่พวกเธอแขวนตากไว้ที่หน้าเตาไฟ สาวทั้งสามต่างดีใจเมื่อพบเหรียญทองซึ่งทำให้เธอไม่ต้องไปเป็นโสเภณี

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ซานตาคลอส Santa Claus

ซานตาคลอส
ซานตาคลอส Santa Claus หรือที่เรารู้จักกันดีในช่วงเทศกาล คริสต์มาส มีชื่อเรียกกันว่า นักบุญนิโคลัส, หรือ ฟาเธอร์คริสต์มาส หรือที่เด็ก ๆ ชอบกันว่า “ซานต้า” เป็นบุคคลที่มีจุดกำเนิดทางตำนาน เทพปกรณัม ประวัติศาสตร์และตำนานพื้นบ้าน ตามวัฒนธรรมตะวันตกหลายประเทศ ซึ่งแต่ละประเทศก็มีเรื่องราวเล่าสืบต่อกันมาต่าง ๆ กัน ตามแต่ละประเทศ

กล่าวกันว่าเขาเป็นผู้นำของขวัญไปยังบ้านของเด็กดีในช่วงเย็นและข้ามคืนวัน คริสต์มาสอีฟ วันที่ 24 ธันวาคม ภาพลักษณ์สมัยใหม่ถูกดัดแปลงมาจากภาพลักษณ์ซินเทอร์กลาส (Sinterklass) แบบดัตช์ ซึ่งอาจมีพื้นฐานมาจากเรื่องเล่าชีวประวัตินักบุญเกี่ยวกับบุคคลในประวัติ ศาสตร์ผู้ให้ของขวัญชื่อนักบุญนิโคลัส อีกทอดหนึ่ง เรื่องเล่าที่แทบไม่ต่างกันยังปรากฏในตำนานพื้นบ้านกรีกและไบแซนไทน์ คือ บาซิลแห่งซีซาเรีย วันสมโภชของบาซิลในวันที่ 1 มกราคมนั้น ถูกมองว่าเป็นช่วงเวลาแห่งการแลกของขวัญในกรีซ

โดยทั่วไปซานตาคลอสถูกพรรณนาว่าเป็นชายเคราขาวร่างท้วมผู้ร่าเริงสนุกสนาน สวมโค้ดสีแดงกับคอเสื้อสีขาว กางเกงขายาวสีแดง เข็มขัดและรองเท้าหนังสีดำ (ภาพของเขามักไม่ค่อยมีเคราโดยไม่มีหนวด) ภาพลักษณ์นี้ได้รับความนิยมในสหรัฐอเมริกาและแคนาดาในคริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 19 เนื่องจากอิทธิพลอย่างสำคัญของกวี “การมาเยี่ยมจากนักบุญนิโคลัส” ของคลีเมนต์ คลาร์ก มัวร์ ใน ค.ศ.1823 และของนักเขียนภาพล้อเลียนและนักวาดการ์ตูนการเมือง โทมัส แนสต์ ภาพลักษณ์นี้ถูกรักษาและเสริมแต่งผ่านเพลง วิทยุ โทรทัศน์ หนังสือเด็กและภาพยนตร์ การพรรณนาซานตาคลอสในอเมริกาเหนือดังที่พัฒนาขึ้นในคริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 19 และ 20 ต่อมาได้มีอิทธิพลต่อความเข้าใจสมัยใหม่ของฟาเธอร์คริสต์มาส ซินเตอร์กลาสและนักบุญนิโคลัสในวัฒนธรรมยุโรป

ตามความเชื่อซึ่งสามารถสืบย้อนไปได้ถึงคริสต์ทศวรรษ 1820 ซานตาคลอสอาศัยที่ขั้วโลกเหนือ พร้อมกับเอลฟ์มีเวทมนตร์จำนวนมากและกวางเรนเดียร์เหาะเก้าตัว (แต่เดิมมีแปด) ตั้งแต่คริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 20 ในแนวคิดซึ่งทำให้ได้รับความนิยมโดยเพลง “ซานตาคลอสกำลังมาเมือง” ใน ค.ศ. 1934 เชื่อกันว่าซานตาคลอสทำรายชื่อเด็กทั่วโลก และแบ่งประเภทพวกเขาตามพฤติกรรม (“ดื้อ” หรือ “น่ารัก”) และมอบของขวัญ รวมทั้งของเล่นและลูกกวาดสำหรับเด็กประพฤติดีในโลก และบางครั้งส่งถ่านหินไปให้เด็กดื้อ ภายในคืนวันคริสต์มาสอีฟคืนเดียว เขาสำเร็จได้ด้วยความช่วยเหลือของเอลฟ์ผู้ทำของเล่นในโรงงาน และกวางเรนเดียร์ที่ลากเลื่อนหิมะของเขา

ข้อมูลจากวิกิพีเดีย สารานุกรมเสรีsanta-claus-se-sobi

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